Continuous Update Project (CUP) Matrix

Summary of strong evidence from our analysis of worldwide research on diet, nutrition, physical activity & preventing cancer

Download Continuous Update Project (CUP) Matrix as PDF

Strong evidence matrix

1 Includes evidence on foods containing carotenoids for mouth, pharynx, larynx.

2 Includes evidence on foods containing carotenoids for mouth, pharynx, larynx and lung.

3 For stomach, probable increased risk of non-cardia cancer only.

4 For colorectum, evidence is from milk and studies using supplements.

5 Probable increased risk for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma only.

6 For oesophagus, convincing increased risk for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma only. For liver and stomach, based on evidence for alcohol intakes above around 45 grams per day (about 3 drinks a day). For colorectum, convincing increased risk for men and probable increased risk for women. For kidney, based on evidence for alcohol intakes up to 30 grams per day (about 2 drinks a day).

7 For lung, evidence is from studies using high-dose supplements in smokers.

8 Convincing decreased risk for colon not rectum.

9 For oesophagus, convincing increased risk for adenocarcinoma only. For stomach, probable increased risk of cardia cancer only. For prostate, probable increased risk for advanced prostate cancer only.

10 Adult attained height is unlikely to directly influence the risk of cancer. It is a marker for genetic, environmental, hormonal and nutritional factors affecting growth during the period from preconception to completion of linear growth.