Continuous Update Project (CUP) Matrix

Summary of strong evidence from our analysis of worldwide research on diet, nutrition, physical activity & preventing cancer

Download Continuous Update Project (CUP) Matrix as PDF

Strong evidence matrix

1 Includes evidence on foods containing carotenoids for mouth, pharynx, larynx; foods containing beta-carotene for oesophagus; foods containing vitamin C for oesophagus.

2 Includes evidence on foods containing carotenoids for mouth, pharynx, larynx and lung; foods containing beta-carotene for oesophagus; foods containing vitamin C for oesophagus.

3 For stomach, probable increased risk of non-cardia cancer only.

4 For colorectum, evidence is from milk and studies using supplements.

5 For liver and stomach, based on evidence for alcohol intakes above around 45 grams per day (about 3 drinks a day). For colorectum, convincing increased risk for men and probable increased risk for women. For kidney, based on evidence for alcohol intakes up to 30 grams per day (about 2 drinks a day).

6 For lung, evidence is from studies using high-dose supplements in smokers.

7 Convincing increased risk for colon not rectum.

8 For oesophagus, convincing increased risk for adenocarcinoma only. For stomach, probable increased risk of cardia cancer only. For prostate, probable increased risk for advanced prostate cancer only.

9 Adult attained height is unlikely to directly influence the risk of cancer. It is a marker for genetic, environmental, hormonal and nutritional factors affecting growth during the period from preconception to completion of linear growth.