Continuous Update Project (CUP) Matrix

Summary of strong evidence from our analysis of worldwide research on diet, nutrition, physical activity & preventing cancer

Download Continuous Update Project (CUP) Matrix as PDF

1 Includes evidence on foods containing carotenoids

2 Non-cardia stomach cancer only

3 Evidence is from milk and studies using supplements

4 Based on evidence for alcohol intakes above approximately 45 grams per day (about 3 drinks a day)

5 Convincing increased risk for men and probable increased risk for women

6 Based on evidence for alcohol intakes up to 30 grams per day (about 2 drinks a day). There is insufficient evidence for intake greater than 30 grams per day

7 Evidence is from studies using high-dose supplements in smokers

8 Includes both foods naturally containing the constituent and foods which have the constituent added and includes studies using supplements at doses of 20, 30, and 50 mg/day (prostate)

9 Colon cancer only

10 Body fatness is marked by body mass index (BMI) and where available waist circumference and waist-hip ratio

11 Cardia cancer only

12 Advanced prostate cancer only

13 Young women aged about 18 to 30 years. Body fatness is marked by BMI

14 Adult attained height is unlikely to directly influence the risk of cancer. It is a marker for genetic, environmental, hormonal and nutritional factors affecting growth during the period from preconception to completion of linear growth

15 Relates to the evidence for overall breast cancer (unspecified)

To reference this matrix please use the following citation: World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research. Continuous Update Project: Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer. Summary of Strong Evidence. Available at: accessed on DD-MM-YYYY